At Key Stage 3, learners should be given opportunities to build on the skills, knowledge and understanding acquired at Key Stage 2. They should develop their skills through the range of Interdependence of organisms, The sustainable Earth and How things work. Learners should be taught to apply their scientific skills, knowledge and understanding to design strategies, solve problems and offer explanations, relating scientific ideas to the information about them, including current issues. They should be given opportunities to study the work of scientists and to recognise the role of experimental data, creative thinking and values in their work and in developing scientific ideas. Teaching should encourage learners to manage their own learning and further develop learning and thinking strategies. They should be taught to take different perspectives, value others’ opinions and be responsible global citizens. Activities should foster curiosity and creativity and be interesting, enjoyable, relevant and challenging for the learner. They should enable learners to initiate, explore and share ideas. Activities should enable learners to extend, refine and apply their skills, knowledge and understanding in new and more abstract situations. They should allow time for thinking, peer discussion and reflection.
At Key Stage 4, learners should be given opportunities to build on the skills, knowledge and understanding acquired at Key Stage 3. They should learn about the way that science and scientists work within society. They consider the relationship between data, evidence, theories and explanations and develop their practical, problem-solving and enquiry skills, working individually and in groups. They evaluate enquiry methods and conclusions both qualitatively and quantitatively, and communicate their ideas with clarity and precision. Learners develop their ability to relate their understanding of science to their own and others, decisions about lifestyles, and to scientific and technological developments in society. Activities should promote peer discussion and reflection when thinking about tasks and problems, in deciding about approaches, and in revising them. Some activities should help learners consolidate their own learning through applying their skills and knowledge in other contexts and situations.